Traditional Hawaiian Salt Makers Combat Climate Change
A community of traditional salt makers on Kaua?i is navigating the impacts of climate change on the generations-old practice. HPR’s Ku?uwehi Hiraishi reports.
Summer time means salt making in Hanap?p? on Kaua?i’s west coast.
"In a really good summer for our ‘ohana, in one harvest we would be able to do 20 to 25, 5-gallon buckets," says Hanap?p? salt maker, Malia Nobrega-Olivera. "If the elements are working with us, sometimes we would do 4 to 5 harvests. So you know that would be a very productive year."
Malia Nobrega-Olivera is a third-generation practitioner of the traditional Hawaiian art of salt making also known as hana pa?akai.
Her family is one of 22 who continue this Hanap?p? tradition. There are three main steps to the hana pa?akai process.
"Every ?ohana has a puna, which is the main well," says Nobrega-Olivera.
Underground sea water seeps up through the bottom of the puna and is transferred to a secondary well or wai ku. Once salt crystals begin to form, the brine is transferred to a drying bed or lo?i.
"And in the lo?i is where you will see the salt crystals actually appearing. That’s where that magic is happening," says Nobrega-Olivera.
For the last five summers, however, Nobrega-Olivera’s family has not seen any magic - not a single harvest.
"As we can see in front of us a total flooding of this area," says Nobrega-Olivera, "I didn’t see this when I was younger. Maybe during the winter season. This whole place would be flooded."
We found Leila Fu bailing salt water that ruptured through the bottom of one of her salt beds.
"I just bailed it the other day, and I’m bailing it again," says Fu.
Fu has been working her family’s salt beds for 20 years now, and she says in recent years, harvests have not been good.
"Weather. Lots to do with the weather. These guys got affected up there. King Tides. When we had two in a row, that didn’t help them at all. But a lot has to do with the weather," says Fu, "Rain two years ago, really bad. Barely could even get in here. So once this place floods out, it’s pretty much done."
Hanap?p? salt is harvested from clay salt beds. Raising the level of these beds and fortifying the walls of the well to prevent flooding are just some of the things Nobrega-Olivera is doing to adapt to rising sea levels and erratic weather patterns.
"It’s been interesting to have conversation with scientist who will say, ?Why don’t you just move your practice to another place? There must be another place on Kaua?i that can do this,?" says Nobrega-Olivera.
Nobrega-Olivera’s response is an adamant no.
"We know that a lot of our cultural practices are very place-based and particular to this ‘?ina. There are certain elements that make this place special to allow this production," says Nobrega-Olivera, "And you don’t see that anywhere else."