bombing

PCOO EDP / Wikimedia Commons

The armed forces of the Philippines launched air strikes and artillery attacks after President Rodrigo Duterte ordered “all-out war” against an Islamic group blamed for last Sunday’s bombing of a cathedral. Now two people are reported killed in a grenade attack on a mosque.

Face of the Enemy

Dec 6, 2016
United States War Department (United States National Archives) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
United States War Department (United States National Archives) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

When Japan bombed Pearl Harbor seventy five years ago, thirty seven percent of Hawai‘i’s population was ethnically Japanese.  Honolulu hummed with Japanese run restaurants, sundry stores, hardware and grocery stores, everyone went to Japanese movies, and Japanese maids and gardeners worked in many wealthy homes.  HPR’s Noe Tanigawa reports on how Japanese and others felt during the period.

U.S. National Archives
U.S. National Archives

The bombing of Pearl Harbor was a turning point for Hawai‘i, but it was also the culmination of decades of militarization on O‘ahu.  At the same time, ethnic Japanese constituted forty percent of Hawai‘i’s population, a fact not lost on Washington, as Japanese armies spread across China and the Pacific.